J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A, 19, 1004-1007 (2001).
Ranjan, R., Allain, J. P., Hendricks, M. R., Ruzic, D. N.
Ti and TiN films are used as diffusion barrier layers in Al and Cu metallization. They are often produced using physical-vapor-deposition techniques and are subject to energetic particle bombardment during subsequent processes. Therefore, the sputtering yield for ion-induced physical sputtering is important. The absolute sputtering yields of Ti and TiN target materials with 400–700 eV normally incident N and Ar ions are measured here. The experimental values are favorably compared to simulation results from TRIM.SP, which is a vectorized Monte Carlo code simulating ion–surface interaction using a binary collision mode. The phenomenon of reactive sputtering of Ti with incident N is also discussed.