J. Appl. Phys., 99, 063301 (2006).
Antonsen, E. L., Thompson, K. C., Hendricks, M. R., Alman, D. A., Jurczyk, B. E., Ruzic, D. N.
An XTREME Technologies XTS 13-35 extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light source creates a xenon z pinch that generates 13.5 nm light. Due to the near x-ray nature of light at this wavelength, extremely smooth metal mirrors for photon collection must be employed. These are exposed to the source debris. Dissolution of the z-pinch gas column results in high-energy ion and neutral release throughout the chamber that can have adverse effects on mirror surfaces. The XTREME commercial EUV emission diagnostic chamber was designed to maximize diagnostic access to the light and particulate emissions from the z pinch. The principal investigation is characterization of the debris field and the erosive effects on optics present. Light emission from the z pinch is followed by ejection of multiply charged ions and fast neutral particles that make up an erosive flux to chamber surfaces. Attenuation of this erosive flux to optical surfaces is attempted by inclusion of a debris mitigation tool consisting of foil traps and neutral buffer gas flow. Characterization of the z-pinch ejecta is performed with a spherical sector energy analyzer (ESA) that diagnoses fast ion species by energy-to-charge ratio using ion time-of-flight (ITOF) analysis. This is used to evaluate the debris tool’s ability to divert direct fast ions from impact on optic surfaces. The ITOF-ESA is used to characterize both the energy and angular distribution of the direct fast ions. Xe+ up to Xe+4 ions have been characterized along with Ar+ (the buffer gas used), W+, Mo+, Si+, Fe+, and Ni+. Energy spectra for these species from 0.5 up to 13 keV are defined at 20° and 30° from the pinch centerline in the chamber. Results show a drop in ion flux with angular increase. The dominant species is Xe+ which peaks around 8 keV. Ion flux measured against buffer gas flow rate suggests that the direct fast ion population is significantly attenuated through increases in buffer gas flow rate. This does not address momentum transfer from scattered ions or fast neutral particles. These results are discussed in the context of other investigations on the effects of total particle flux to normal incidence mirror samples exposed for 1×107 pulses. The samples (Si/Mo multilayer with Ru capping layer, Au, C, Mo, Pd, Ru, and Si) were exposed to the source plasma with 75% argon flow rate in the debris mitigation tool and surface metrology was performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray reflectivity, and scanning electron microscopy to analyze erosion effects on mirrors. These results are compared to the measured direct ion debris field.