Phys Rev E., 61, 1904-1911 (2000).
Wang, Z., Cohen, S. A., Ruzic, D. N., Goeckner, M. J.
Energy distributions of nitrogen atoms (N) in a hollow-cathode planar sputtering magnetron were obtained by use of optical emission spectroscopy. A characteristic line, N i 8216.3 Å, well separated from molecular nitrogen emission bands, was identified. Jansson’s nonlinear spectral deconvolution method, refined by minimization of χw2, was used to obtain the optimal deconvolved spectra. These showed nitrogen atom energies from 1 eV to beyond 500 eV. Based on comparisons with vftrim computer code results, it is proposed that the energetic N’s are generated from N2+ ions after these ions are accelerated through the sheath and dissociatively reflect from the cathode.