J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A, 9, 702-706 (1991).
Rossnagel, S. M., Schatz, K., Whitehair, S. J., Guarnieri, C. R., Ruzic, D. N., Cuomo, J. J.
In a conventional, axial electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source, the substrate is typically in the diverging magnetic field region immediately downstream from the ECR region. Due to the high electron mobility along magnetic field lines, the substrate potential may influence the properties of the plasma. A substrate electrode consisting of seven, individually biasable, concentric rings was positioned below the ECR source, such that the potential at the termination of the field lines could be controlled. The ECR source used was a commercial, 1.5-kW device operating at 2.45 gHz and utilized two large electromagnets to provide magnetic fields in the range of 200–1000 G. The plasmas were diagnosed by means of a microwave interferometer in the source region, an automated Langmuir probe, and an array of ground potential metal rings in both the source and sample regions of the chamber. The results suggest that ions in this source are poorly confined (by the magnetic field) while electrons are well confined. The electron density could be increased slightly by electron reflection from the substrate region, or could be depleted strongly by substrate potentials exceeding the floating potential. The net efficiency of these sources is low: only about 14% of the ion flux from the plasma is incident on the sample position. The rest of the ions are lost at the source walls.